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Bibliography

Codes and Standards     Top

Building exits code. Boston: National Fire Protection Association, 1942. FULL TEXT

City of Boston building code.  Boston: January 25, 1937.  Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

NBFU. Suggested Ordinance on Safety to Life in Places of Assembly. 1943.  FULL TEXT 

SS-A-188, Federal Standard Stock Catalog, Section IV (Part 5) Federal Specification for Acoustical-Units: Prefabricated, November 20, 1939, effective August 15, 1940.  FULL TEXT 

USDA. Fire-retarding Coatings, No. R1280, revised September 1942. Courtesy of Boston Fire Historical Society. FULL TEXT

The Fire—Articles from scholarly and popular magazines    Top

“488 dead in night club fire.” Volunteer Firemen 10 no.1 (January 1943): 3-5. FULL TEXT

Bass J.  “No way out.” Boston Magazine (October 11, 1992) : 73+.  Courtesy of Boston MagazineFULL TEXT

Blackington AH.  “Boston night club holocaust claims over 500 lives: Cause of fire not yet established; blocked exits responsible for heavy loss.” Fire Engineering 95 no.12 (1942): 733+.  Courtesy of Fire Engineering.  FULL TEXT

Boston (MA) Evening American. “Cocoanut Grove memorial.” December 12, 1942. FULL TEXT Reprinted with permission from the Boston Herald.  Donated by Marie Stamos.

"Boston fire; record death toll reaches 492 as 119 survivors struggle for life.”  Life 14 (December 13, 1942): 47-8. FULL TEXT Donated by Jim Biggie.

“Boston holocaust.”  Life 13 (December 7, 1942): 44.

“Boston’s worst.”  Time 40 (December 7, 1942): 26.

Brannigan, FL. Letter to the editor, NFPA Journal, 1991 (Nov/Dec) : 6. FULL TEXT

“Catastrophe: Cocoanut Grove, Boston’s oldest nightclub.” Newsweek 20 (December 7,1942): 43-4.

Coleman TH, FD Moore, O Cope and B Cannon . “The night the Grove burned.” Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin 65 (Winter 1991/92): 10-19.
 
“Death in Boston.” Contract Interiors 10 (December 1942): 62-66.

DeVoto B. “Easy chair; Boston fire and its implications.”  Harper’s 186 (February 1943): 332-6.

Drabek TE and EL Quarantelli. “Scapegoats, villains, and disasters.” Trans-Action 4 (March 1967): 12-7.

Duval R. “The Legacy of nightclub fires.” NFPA Journal 101 no.3 (May/June 2007): 90-97.  FULL TEXT

Dyrud MA. “Fire! Three case studies in ethics.”  IN: Session S2H  Ethics: Creative ways to teach it. 36th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference; October 28-31, 2006, San Diego, CA. http://fie-conference.org/fie2006/index.html  FULL TEXT

“Fires in Places Where People Assemble.” NBFU Bulletin of Special Interest to Fire Department Officials no. 159 (January 1, 1943): 1. FULL TEXT 

Grant CC. “Last dance at the Cocoanut Grove.”  NFPA Journal 85 no.3 (May/June 1991): 74-86. FULL TEXT

Grant CC. “Last dance at the Cocoanut Grove.” [Revised] NFPA Journal 101 no.6 (November/December 2007): 47-71. FULL TEXT

Durso F. "Past + Present." NFPA Journal 106 no.6 (November/December 2012): 44-49. FULL TEXT

Horan T. “Death Strikes the Cocoanut Grove: After 35 years, America’s worst nightclub fire.” Firehouse (November 1977): 31+. Courtesy of Firehouse.  FULL TEXT
 
“Immediate autopsy urged; Boston fire lesson”.  Science News Letter 43 (January 1943): 21.

“Lessons of disaster.” Newsweek 20 (December 28, 1942): 68.

“Looking back at the Cocoanut Grove.” Fire Journal 76 no.6 (November 1982): 60–3. FULL TEXT

Montgomery EN. “Since the Cocoanut Grove: Address by Chief Edward N. Montgomery Bureau of Fire Prevention, Boston Fire Department.” Fire Marshals’ Section of the NFPA Proceedings of Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass. June 3-4, 1946: 13-15. FULL TEXT

Moulton RS. “Lessons from the Boston night club fire.” American City Magazine 57 (December 1942): 5.

Norris C.  “‘Angel’s’ money launches Cocoanut Grove nightclub.” Patriot Ledger (October 9/10, 1993) : 10. Courtesy of Patriot Ledger.  FULL TEXT

Norris C.  “Blue flash signals tragedy at the Cocoanut Grove.” Patriot Ledger (November 6/7, 1993): 40. Courtesy of Patriot LedgerFULL TEXT

Norris C.  “Grove prospers, but problems mount for King Solomon.” Patriot Ledger (October 23/24, 1993): 39. Courtesy of Patriot LedgerFULL TEXT

Norris C. “Nightclub succeeds in gala opening.” Patriot Ledger (October 16/17, 1993): 20. Courtesy of Patriot LedgerFULL TEXT

Norris C.  “Underworld assassins murder Grove owner.” Patriot Ledger (October 30/31, 1993): 36. Courtesy of Patriot LedgerFULL TEXT

Powell P. “Lest we forget.”  Fire Journal 76 no.6 (November 1982): 3.  FULL TEXT

Reinhardt W. “Looking back at the Cocoanut Grove.” Fire Journal 76 no.6 (November 1982) : 60-63. FULL TEXT

Ross M. “The tragedy of Cocoanut Grove: Remembering the horror 50 years ago.” The Dental Record (Winter 1993): 1, 14.

Shannon JM. “The Cocoanut Grove fire.” NFPA Journal 101 no.6 (December 2007): 6. FULL TEXT

Sheehan JC and RN Ross. “The fire that made penicillin famous.” Yankee Magazine (November 1982: 125+.

 “Tragedy in Boston.” Architectural Forum 78 (January 1943): 35.

Sheppard, F. “With the editor: The Boston Holocaust.” Fire Engineering 96 no. 1 (1943) Courtesy of Fire EngineeringFULL TEXT

Vahey JP. “Cocoanut Grove: 490 killed, 166 injured in 1942 Boston blaze.” Firehouse (November 1992) : 57-61.

Washburn ES. “Lessons of the Cocoanut Grove fire.” Survey Midmonthly 79 (February 1943): 46-8.

Weeks F. “After Cocoanut Grove.” The Atlantic 171 (March 1943): 55-7

Whipple ABC. “Holiday inferno.” Readers Digest 141 (November 1992): 118.

 

The Fire- Books and chapters from books    Top

Benzaquin P. Fire in Boston's Cocoanut Grove : Holocaust! New ed. Boston: Branden Press, 1967. (First ed. published in 1959 under title: Holocaust!)

Clevely H. Famous fires.  New York: J. Day Co., 1958.

Dionne RA.  The Cocoanut Grove Fire of 1942.  Senior honors thesis. Waltham, Mass.: Brandeis University, 2008

Esposito JC. Fire in the Grove : The tragedy of Boston's Cocoanut Grove fire. Cambridge, Mass:  Da Capo Press, 2005

Goodman EC. Fire! : The 100 most devastating fires and the heroes who fought them. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2001.

Keyes E. Cocoanut Grove. New York: Atheneum, 1984.

Lyons PR. Fire in America. Boston: National Fire Protection Association, 1976. FULL TEXT

Robinson DB. The face of disaster.  Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, 1959.

Schorow S. The Cocoanut Grove fire. Beverly, Mass: Commonwealth Editions, 2005.

Schorow S. “The Cocoanut Grove: Heat, smoke, and panic.” In: Boston on fire : a history of fires and firefighting in Boston. Beverly, MA: Commonwealth Editions; 2003. p. 126-75.

Tubbs JS. and BJ Meacham. “Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire, Boston, Massachusetts, 1942.”  IN: Egress design solutions. Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, 2007.

Vahey JP. Design for disaster : Cocoanut Grove fire, November 28, 1942. Boston, Mass: Boston Sparks Association, Inc, 1982. FULL TEXT
 

The Fire – Videos    Top

Backes N. “Devastation at the Cocoanut Grove.”  In: Great Fires of America. Waukesha,Wis.  : Country Beautiful Corp., 1973. 

Boston the way it was, part 12-Cocoanut Grove. [YouTube video (7:10 min.)]. Boston : WGBH, 1995. Interviewees: Bill Sartorelli, Holy Cross football player; Gladys Shapiro; Anne Smythe; Joe Coppola; Thelma Marcus; Saul Davis, survivor; Daniel Weiss, survivor, George Graney, firefighter.  Available at: http://youtu.be/X-NJia2koOA

“Cocoanut Grove fire: horror and heroism.” Originally broadcast as an episode of the television program Chronicle. 1 videocassette (21 min.) : sd., col. ; 1/2 in. Boston: WCVB-TV, 1993.

Death by design [Internet]. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2001.

Disasters of the century. “Episode 5, Out of control” [1 videodisc (46:45 min.)]. Regina, SK: Partners in Motion Pictures Inc, 2001.

Engineering disasters 13 [1 videodisc ( 50 min.)]. Burlington, VT: A & E Television Network : Distributed in the U.S. by New Video, 2004.

Fires that caused change [1 videocassette (30 min.)]. Carrollton, TX: Trinity Workplace Learning, 2006.

Flashback: the fire at the Coconut [sic] Grove. [1 DVD (44 min.)]. Boston : Creative Television Assoc., 1995?.

“Legacy of the Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire.” [YouTube video (1 hr. 16 min.)]. Boston : WGBH Forum, 2012. Speaker: Casey Grant.  Available at: http://youtu.be/_UZ1_Nk-4Wk 

NFPA Journal—Boston fire trail. [YouTube video (7:12 min.)]. Quincy (Mass.) : National Fire Protection Association, 2011. Speaker: Stephanie Schorow. Available at: http://youtu.be/e843NBIWjO8

NFPA Journal – Cocoanut Grove Survivors tell their stories.[YouTube video (11:46 min.)]. Quincy : National Fire Protection Association, 2012. Interviewees: Saul Davis, Ann Clark Gallagher, and Marshal Cole, survivors.  Available at: http://youtu.be/Q_-V3q5cjFs

Papadopoulos M. Easton doctor recalls surviving Cocoanut Grove fire. [YouTube video (2:57 min.)]. Brockton (Mass.) : The Enterprise of Brockton Mass., 2007. Interviewee: Saul Davis. Available from: http://youtu.be/9SLnzxnsCZY

Schorow S.  Legacy of the Cocoanut Grove Fire [Internet]. September 14, 2004. Available at: http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1649.

Webb DC. Phoenix out of the ashes: The Cocoanut Grove Nightclub fire of 1942.” PowerPoint presentation. [1 DVD (10 min.)] Woonsocket, RI : Mt. St. Charles Academy, June 2007.
 

First Responders - Articles from scholarly and popular magazines    Top

Allen EW. “The Boston aides can take it.” The Red Cross Courier 9 (January 1943): 9+. Courtesy of Red CrossFULL TEXT

“Chapter superb in Grove disaster.” Chapter News 7 no.2 (1942): 1+. Courtesy of Red CrossFULL TEXT

Follett GP. “The Boston fire: A challenge to our disaster service.” American Journal of Nursing 43 no.1 (1943): 4-8.

Giblin W. “There were tears and sickness—but neither delay nor indecision.” The Red Cross Courier (January 1943): 13+. Courtesy of Red Cross.  FULL TEXT

Gimmestad E. "Six-alarm call for nurses." The Red Cross Courier (January 1943): 13+. Courtesy of Red Cross. FULL TEXT

Jones BA. “First responders at the Cocoanut Grove night club fire in 1942.” United States Attorneys' Bulletin 52 no.4 (2004): 38–41. FULL TEXT

Manary JW. “Blood plasma miracle at Boston.”  The Red Cross Courier (January 1943): 5+. Courtesy of Red CrossFULL TEXT


First Responders – Books and chapters of books     Top

Kenney C. Rescue men. New York: Public Affairs, 2006.

Morris JV. Fires and firefighters. Boston: Little, Brown, 1955.

Wall BM. “The 1942 Cocoanut Grove nightclub fire: Out of the ashes.”  IN: Nurses on the front line: when disaster strikes, 1878-2010. New York: Springer Pub. Co., 2011.


The Grove    Top

Maines R. Asbestos & fire: Technical trade-offs and the body at risk. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,  2005.


Ignition Theories    Top

Barnard KH. “Fire-retardant textiles from a consumer standpoint.” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 42 no.3 (1950): 430-2.

Beck CB. “Some observations on the possible role of Methyl Chloride (MECL) in the 11/28/42 Cocoanut Grove fire.”  Unpublished report, 1997.  FULL TEXT

Beller D and J Sapochetti.  Searching for answers to the Cocoanut Grove fire of 1942. NFPA Journal  94 no.3 (May 2000): 86-92. FULL TEXT

Buck GS. “Statutory requirements for flame resistance in textiles. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 42 no.3 (1950): 428-30.

Deady JJ. “The cause and origin of the Cocoanut Grove night club fire: a new hypothesis.” Unpublished paper. March 29, 2007. FULL TEXT

“Did methyl chloride ignite Cocoanut Grove?” Contractor Magazine 40 no.11 (1993): 3.

Hainsworth WR. “Refrigerants and absorbents, part I.” Refrigerating Engineering 48 no.2 (1944): 97-100. FULL TEXT

Hainsworth WR. “Refrigerants and absorbents, part II.” Refrigerating Engineering 48 no.3 (1944): 201-205. FULL TEXT

MacIntire CS, et al. “Certain physical and chemical properties of methyl chloride.” Refrigerating Engineering 14 no.4 (1927): 115-120. FULL TEXT

Norris C.  “Evidence of leaking methyl chloride ignored in Grove fire.”  Patriot Ledger (November 13/14, 1993): 28. Courtesy of Patriot LedgerFULL TEXT

Nuckolls AH. Report on the comparative life, fire, and explosion hazards of common refrigerants.  Chicago: Underwriters'  Laboratories, November 13, 1933.


Legal    Top

Blackington AH. “Ten indictments returned in Cocoanut Grove holocaust: Grand jury flays city’s departments for laxity; Creation of public safety recommended.” Fire Engineering 96 no.1 (1943): 20-21.  Courtesy of Fire EngineeringFULL TEXT

Blackington AH. “Trial proves criminal negligence at Cocoanut Grove fire: Owner sentenced on manslaughter charge; Many safety regulations violated.” Fire Engineering 96 no.5 (1943): 242+. Courtesy of Fire EngineeringFULL TEXT

“Fire inspector cleared in Cocoanut Grove fire.” Fire Engineering 97 no. 1 (1944): 49. Courtesy of Fire EngineeringFULL TEXT

“Welansky pardoned.” NFPA Fire Newsletter 354 (December 1946): 1. FULL TEXT


Medical-Articles    Top

Adler A. “Disintegration and restoration of optic recognition in visual agnosia: analysis of case (probably resulting from exposure to carbon monoxide in Cocoanut Grove disaster).”  Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 51 (March 1944): 243-59.

Adler A. “Neuropsychiatric complications in victims of Boston's Cocoanut Grove disaster.” Journal of the American Medical Association 123 no.17 (1943): 1098-1101.

Adler A. “Two different types of post-traumatic neuroses (head injury and Cocoanut Grove disaster patients).” American Journal of Psychiatry 102 (September 1945): 237-40.

Aub JC, H. Pittman and AM Brues. “The pulmonary complications: a clinical description.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 834-40.  Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Barillo DJ and SF Wolf. “Planning for burn disasters: lessons learned from one hundred years of history.” Journal of Burn Care & Research 27 no. 5 (September 2006): 622-34.

Beecher HK. “Resuscitation and sedation of patients with burns which include the airway: Some problems of immediate therapy.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 825-33. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Burns F. “Massachusetts General: What it takes to make a great hospital.” Harper's Magazine (June 1960): 60-67.

Cannon B. “Rehabilitation following severe burns; experiences with victims of Boston night club (Cocoanut Grove).” Surgery 15 (January 1944): 178-85.

Cannon B. “Procedures in rehabilitation of the severely burned.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 903-910. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Cannon B and O Cope. “Rate of epithelial regeneration: A clinical method of measurement, and the effect of various agents recommended in the treatment of burns. Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 761-79. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Cannon IM. “Social service activities.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 809-13. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Cannon B. “Plastic and reconstructive surgery at the MGH.” The Massachusetts General Hospital Surgical Society Newsletter  4 no.1 (Summer 2003): 5, 16-17. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Clowes GHA, CC Lund and SC Levenson. “The surface treatment of burns: A comparison of results of tannic acid, silver nitrate, triple dye, and vaseline or boric ointment as surface treatments in 150 cases.” Annals of Surgery 118 no. 5 (November 1943): 761-79. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Cobb S and E Lindemann. “Neuro-psychiatric observations.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 814-24. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

“The Cocoanut Grove disaster.” Lancet 243 no. 6268 (February 19, 1944): 252.

Cope O. “The end of the tannic acid era.” Harvard Medical Alumni Bulletin 57 (1983): 17-9.

Cope O. “Care of the victims of the Cocoanut Grove fire at the Massachusetts General Hospital.” New England Journal of Medicine 229 no. 4 (July 1943): 138–47.

Cope O. “Foreword.” Annals of Surgery 117 no.6 (1943): 801-802. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

 Cope O. "Management of the Cocoanut Grove burns at the Massachusetts General Hospital." Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 801-2. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Cope O. “The treatment of the surface burns.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 885-93. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Cope O, JL Langohr, FD Moore and RC Webster Jr. “Expeditious care of full-thickness burn wounds by surgical excision and grafting.”  Annals of Surgery 125 no.1 (January 1947): 1-22. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Cope O and FD Moore. “The redistribution of body water and the fluid therapy of the burned patient.” Annals of Surgery 126 no. 6. (December 1947): 1010-45. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Cope O, IT Nathanson, GM Rourke and H. Wilson. “Metabolic observations.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 937-58. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT
 
Cope O and FW Rhinelander. “The problem of burn shock complicated by pulmonary damage.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 915-28. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT
 
Dalton ML. “Champ Lyons: An incomplete life.” Annals of Surgery 237 no. 5 (May 2003): 694-703. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1514522/

Davidson CS. “The Cocoanut Grove disaster (Maxwell Finland).” Journal of Infectious Diseases 125 (March 1972): Suppl:58-73.

Easton WH. “Organic industrial solvents in terms of their fire hazards.” Industrial Medicine 12 (Oct 1943): 647-49.

Evans JH. “Section on anesthesiology, medical society of State of New York; address of welcome (including notes on use of oxygen therapy for gas poisoning in Cocoanut Grove disaster).” New York State Journal of Medicine 43 (December 1, 1943): 2303-95.

Faxon NW. “The problems of the hospital administration--the Cocoanut Grove disaster.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 803-8. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT
 
Faxon NW, Churchill ED. “The Cocoanut Grove disaster in Boston: A preliminary account.” Journal of the American Medical Association 120 (1942): 1385-8. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital. FULL TEXT Reprint: FULL TEXT

Finland M, CS Davidson and SS Levenson . “Chemotherapy and control of infection among victims of Cocoanut Grove disaster.” Surgery, Gynecology & Obstetrics 82 (February 1946): 151-73.

Finland M, CS Davidson and SM Levenson.  “Clinical and therapeutic aspects of the conflagration injuries to the respiratory tract sustained by victims of the Cocoanut Grove disaster.” Medicine 25 (September 1946): 215-83.

Finland M, CS Davidson and SM Levenson.  “Effects of plasma and fluid on pulmonary complications in burned patients; study of the effects in the victims of the Cocoanut Grove fire.” Archives of Internal Medicine 77 (May 1946): 477-90.

Finland M, M Ritvo, CS Davidson and SM Levenson.  “Roentgenologic findings in the lungs of victims of the Cocoanut Grove disaster.” American Journal of Roentgenology and Radium Therapy 55 (January 1946): 1-15.

Gawande A. "Desperate measures." New Yorker (May 5, 2003): 70-81.

Gorrell J. “Lessons from the Boston tragedy.” Modern Hospital 60 (January 1943) :55-6.

Kinzie JD and RR Goetz. “A century of controversy surrounding posttraumatic stress stress-spectrum syndromes: The impact on DSM-III and DSM-IV.” Journal of Traumatic Stress 9 no.2 (May 1996): 159-79.

Koch S.  Minutes of Fifth Meeting, December 8, 1942, Boston National Research Council, Division of Medical Sciences, Subcommittee on Burns: December 8, 1942.  Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

“Lessons from the Boston fire.” British Medical Journal (March 25, 1944): 427-8. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Levenson SM. “Thermal burns: A personal odyssey.” Surgical Clinics of North America 58 no.5 (October 1978): 1005-17.

Levenson SM and CC Lund. “Thermal burns.” Disease-a-Month 9 (October 1957): 1-47.

Ligon BL. “Maxwell Finland: pioneer researcher in pneumococcal diseases and antibiotics (1902–1987).”  Seminars in Pediatric Infectious Diseases 10 no.1 (1999): 72-80.

Lindemann E. “Symptomatology and management of acute grief.” American Journal of Psychiatry 101 no.9 (1944): 141-148.

Lyons C. “Problems of infection and chemotherapy.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 894-902. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital. FULL TEXT
 
Mallory TB and WJ Brickley. “Pathology with special reference to the pulmonary lesions.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 865-84. Courtesy of Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT
 
McClure RD, CR Lam and H. Romence. “Tannic acid and treatment of burns; an obseqy.” Annals of Surgery 120 (1944): 3897-8.

Meleney FL. “The study of the prevention of infection in contaminated accidental wounds, compound fractures, and burns.”  Annals of Surgery 118 (1943): 171-86.

Moore FD. “A note on the thrombophlebitis encountered in Cocoanut Grove burn patients.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 931-36. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital. FULL TEXT
 
Moore FD. “Then and now: Treatment volume, wound coverage, lung injury, and antibiotics: A capsule history of burn treatment at mid-century.” Burns 25 no.8 (1999): 733-7.

Pittman HS and R Schatzki. “Pulmonary effects of the Cocoanut Grove fire; a 5 year follow up study.” New England Journal of Medicine 241 no. 25 (December 22, 1949): 1008.

Pfeiffer CC, LF Hallman and I. Gersh . “Boric acid ointment: A study of possible intoxication in the treatment of burns.” Journal of the American Medical Association 128 no.4 (May 26, 1945): 266-274.

“Protocols.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (June 1943): 959–965. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Reggio AW. “Value of prepared, practiced and well-formed emergency medical service; Cocoanut Grove disaster.” Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons 28 (June 1943): 167.

Saffle JR. “The 1942 fire at Boston's Cocoanut Grove nightclub.” American Journal of Surgery 166 no.6 (December 1993): 581-91.

Schatzki R. “Roentgenologic report of the pulmonary lesions”. Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 841-64. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Soutter L. “A note on the blood bank.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 928-931. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital. FULL TEXT
 
Sparr SA, M Jay, FW Drislane and N Venna. “A historic case of visual agnosia revisited after 40 years.” Brain 114 pt.2 (April 1991): 789-800.

Symposium on the management of the Cocoanut Grove burns at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott; 1943.  FULL TEXT

Taylor FH, SM Levenson, CS Davidson and MA Adams. “Abnormal nitrogen metabolism in patients with thermal burns.” New England Journal of Medicine 229 (1943): 855-9.

Tompkins RG. “The American Burn Association in the new millennium.”  Journal of Burn Care & Rehabilitation 22 no.6 (December 2001): 369-374.

Veltfort HR and GE Lee. “The Cocoanut Grove fire: A study in scapegoating.” Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 38 no.2, Suppl. (1943): 138-54.

Watkins AL. “A note on physical therapy.” Annals of Surgery 117 no. 6 (1943): 911-914. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital. FULL TEXT
 

Medical—Books/Chapters    Top

Bull W and M Bull. Something in the ether: A bicentennial history of Massachusetts General Hospital 1811-2011. Beverly,Mass : Memoirs Unlimited, 2011.

Chertkoff JM and RH Kushigian. “Cocoanut Grove Night Club Fire, November 28, 1942.” In: Don't panic: The psychology of emergency egress and ingress. Westport, Conn : Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1999.

Enders JF.  “Persuading viruses to multiply.” In: Doctors and discoveries : Lives that created today's medicine.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002.

Faxon NW. “Cocoanut Grove disaster.” In: The Massachusetts General Hospital, 1935-1955. Cambridge, Mass : Harvard University Press, 1959.

Moore FD. “Death after the game: The Cocoanut Grove fire In: A miracle and a privilege: recounting a half century of surgical advance." Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 1995.

Moore FD. “The respiratory tract injury of burns: Lessons from the past.” In: Respiratory injury : Smoke inhalation and burns. New York: McGraw-Hill, Health Professions Division, 1990.

Ravage B. Burn unit : Saving lives after the flames. Cambridge, Mass: Da Capo Press, 2004.

Simmons JG. Doctors and discoveries : Lives that created today's medicine.  Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. 

van der Kolk BA and W Kadish. “Amnesia, dissociation, and the return of the repressed.” In: Psychological Trauma. Washington: American Psychiatric Press, 1987.
 

Official Reports    Top

Allen FG (Mrs.). Nurse’s Aide Report Cocoanut Grove Disaster. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d.  Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT

American National Red Cross. Cocoanut Grove fire, Boston, Massachusetts, November 28, 1942; official report of relief operations.  ARC Circular 1510. Washington, D.C.: June, 1943. Courtesy of Red Cross and Massachusetts General HospitalFULL TEXT

Anderson CW. Preliminary Report, Committee on Registration and Information Cocoanut Grove Fire. December 15, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT

Anderson CW. Continued Report, Committee on Registration and Information Cocoanut Grove Fire. December 26, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Baker KL. Report of Medford Red Cross Canteen Saturday, Sunday, Nov. 28, 29, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts. FULL TEXT

Bernardin A. Report on Cocoanut Grove Fire from the Lawrence Chapter –American Red Cross. Unpublished report. December 10, 1942. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Bigelow RD. Log of Canteen Corps Cocoanut Grove Fire November 28, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts. FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request for Building Commissioner to investigate night clubs, theatres, and places of amusement. November 30, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request for committee to investigate Cocoanut Grove Fire. November 30, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request for formulation of fire inspection plan.  December 21, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston ArchivesFULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request for Building Commissioner, Fire Commissioner, Police Commissioner to investigate public dance halls. December 7, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request for Police Commissioner to contact relatives of victims to confirm receipt of personal effects.  December 7, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request for State Fire Marshall, police, Building Commissioner, Fire Commissioner, Public Safety and Licensing Division directors to inspect all gathering places.  November 30, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request that Boston Licensing Board immediately suspend all night club licenses.  November 30, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request that Building Commissioner and Fire Commissioner survey public meeting places.  November 30, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request that Fire Commissioner post firemen in gathering places.  December 7, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Boston City Council. Request that mayor offer reward for information.  December 14, 1942. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.). City of Boston Committee on Public Safety.  Cocoanut Grove casualties from fire, November 28, 1942: Master list. December 10, 1942: 1-26. FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.). City of Boston Committee on Public Safety.  Cocoanut Grove casualties from fire, November 28, 1942: Master list. October 16, 1943: 53-64. FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Fire Commissioner. The Boston Cocoanut Grove disaster--a survey of treatment, prepared for the medical profession by the E.L. Patch Co., Boston, Mass. Boston: Fire Department, 1943. 

Boston (Mass.). Fire Department.  Arson squad reportBoston: Boston Fire Department, December 4, 1942. Courtesy of Boston Fire MuseumFULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.). Boston Fire Department. Fire report – District 7.   Boston: Boston Fire Department, November 29, 1942.  Courtesy of Boston Fire Historical Society.   FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.). Boston Fire Department. Fire report, Rescue Co. 1. Boston: Boston Fire Department, November 30, 1942.  Courtesy of Boston Fire MuseumFULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.). Fire Department.  Investigation in the matter of Cocoanut Grove fire. Piedmont Street, Boston, Massachusetts, Boston: Boston Fire Department, December 1942. Courtesy of Boston Public Library.  FULL TEXT (Vol. 1) FULL TEXT (Vol. 2-A) FULL TEXT (Vol. 2-B) FULL TEXT (Vol. 3-A) FULL TEXT (Vol. 3-B) FULL TEXT (Vol. 4-A) FULL TEXT (Vol 4-B) FULL TEXT (Vol. 5) FULL TEXT (Vol. 6) FULL TEXT (Vol. 7) FULL TEXT (Vol. 8) FULL TEXT (Vol. 9) FULL TEXT (Vol. 10) FULL TEXT (Vol. 11) FULL TEXT (Vol. 12)

Boston (Mass.). Massachusetts Department of Public Safety. Electrician’s report. June 6,1944. FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Massachusetts General Hospital. Report of activities of social service department staff in Cocoanut Grove disaster, November 28 - December 13, 1942. December 1942. Courtesy of Massachusetts General Hospital.  FULL TEXT

Boston (Mass.) Police Department. Statements in RE: Cocoanut Grove fire.  Boston: Boston Police Department; 1943.  Courtesy of Boston Police Department. 3 volumes.  FULL TEXT   FULL TEXT   FULL TEXT

City Council minutes.  Boston: November 30, 1942 - December 21,1942.  Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

City Record:  Official chronicle of Boston municipal affairs.  Boston: December 1942.  Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Cushing E. Report on Cocoanut Grove Fire. November 30, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts. FULL TEXT

Densmore FM. Motor Corps Report of Cocoanut Grove Disaster – Saturday, November 28, 1942.Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Densmore FM. Names and addresses of Motor Corps Alerted During the Fire at Cocoanut Grove Saturday, November 28, 1942. December 10, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Dyer WD. Report on Cocoanut Grove Disaster. December 1, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts. FULL TEXT

Garrity S. Report of fire which occurred at Cocoanut Grove, 17-19 Piedmont Street, Boston.  Boston: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Public Safety. November 8, 1943. Courtesy of Boston Fire Historical Society. FULL TEXT 

Gates CA. Report on the Cocoanut Grove Disaster Operation 4211-E. Unpublished report. December 24, 1942. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, 1942.  Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT

Giblin WHG. Report of the Use of Red Cross Dried Blood Plasma in the Cocoanut Grove Disaster. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts. FULLTEXT

Hamilton FB. American Red Cross Medford Chapter. Unpublished report.  December 3, 1942.[Boston]: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Hamlen JR.  A summary of the Boston Metropolitan Chapter of the American Red Cross in the Cocoanut Grove fire on Saturday night, November 28, 1942. American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of Red CrossFULL TEXT

Hamlen JR. American National Red Cross Blood Plasma Episode.(address, Members of the Board of Directors, December 29, 1942). Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Kendall RL. Report of Disaster Committee of Medford Chapter of Red Cross. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Kinchla CE. Report of Operations Cocoanut Grove Fire (4211-E). Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Linney  F.  Inspection: Cocoanut Grove, Piedmont Street.  Boston: Boston Fire Department, November 30, 1942.  Courtesy of Boston Public Library. FULL TEXT

Logan RW (Mrs.). American Red Cross Medford Chapter. Unpublished report.  December 5, 1942. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULLTEXT

McDonough J.  Detail Cocoanut Grove.  Boston: Boston Fire Department, December 4, 1942. FULL TEXT

McDonough J.  Memo regarding witnesses.  Boston: Boston Fire Department, December 4, 1942.  FULL TEXT 

Moulton RS. The Cocoanut Grove night club fire. Boston, November 28, 1942. Boston: National Fire Protection Association, 1943. FULL TEXT

Moulton RS. The Cocoanut Grove night club fire. Boston, Massachusetts November 28, 1942. Boston: National Fire Protection Association, 1962. FULL TEXT

Reed SH. Report of Wakefield Chapter, American Red Cross Participation of Disaster Committee in Cocoanut Grove Fire Saturday, November 28, 1942. December 5, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Reilly WA. Annual report of the Fire Department for the year 1942. Boston: Boston Fire Department, 1943: 6-9. Courtesy of City of Boston ArchivesFULL TEXT

Reilly WA. Report concerning the Cocoanut Grove fire, November 28, 1942. Boston: City of Boston Printing Dept, 1943. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives and Boston Fire Historical Society.  FULL TEXT

Reilly WA.  Report to State Fire Marshall.  Boston: Boston Fire Department, November 19, 1943. Courtesy of Boston Fire MuseumFULL TEXT

Robeson HA. Summary of Volunteer Special Services Participation in Cocoanut Grove Fire, Boston, Massachusetts, November 28, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts. FULL TEXT

Smith WH. Report of the Participation of the Melrose Chapter at the Cocoanut Grove Disaster, Boston, November 28-28, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Snow AW. Staff Assistance Report – Cocoanut Grove Fire.  November 29, 1942. Unpublished report. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULLTEXT

Soloman M. Cocoanut Grove Fire November 28, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d.  Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Stedfast S (Mrs.). Report of the Work of the Newton Motor Corps at the Cocoanut Grove Fire Nov. 28 & 29, 1942. Unpublished report. December 7, 1942. Boston: American National Red Cross, 1942. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern MassachusettsFULL TEXT

Stephenson FB. Cocoanut Grove Disaster November 29, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT

Timilty J. Thirty-seventh annual report of the Police Commissioner for the city of Boston: Year ending November 30, 1942. Boston: 1943.  Courtesy of Boston Public Library. FULL TEXT

Tobin MJ. Annual address of Hon. Maurice J. Tobin, Mayor of Boston, to the City Council delivered in City Council Chamber City Call, Monday, January 4, 1943. Boston: City of Boston Printing Department, 1943. Courtesy of City of Boston Archives.  FULL TEXT

Unknown. [American Red Cross Somerville Chapter Report.] Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT

Unknown. Log of Operations in the Cocoanut Grove Fire (4211-E). Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d. Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT

Vahey J. Report concerning Cocoanut Grove Fire, November 28, 1942.  Boston: Boston Fire Department.  Courtesy of Boston Fire Historical Society.  FULL TEXT

Vahey J. Cocoanut Grove Fire 1942.  Boston: Boston Fire Department, November 1970: 1-9.  FULL TEXT

Wilson DM. Motor Corps Mobile Canteen Cocoanut Grove Disaster November 28, 1942. Unpublished report. [Boston]: American National Red Cross, n.d.  Courtesy of American Red Cross of Eastern Massachusetts.  FULL TEXT
 

Press Releases    Top

Bugbee, P. “Cocoanut Grove: 25 Years After.” Boston: National Fire Protection Association, November 10, 1967. FULL TEXT

Miller, G. “Remembering the Cocoanut Grove fire: November 28 is 50th anniversary.” Quincy (Mass.): National Fire Protection Association, November 18, 1992. FULL TEXT

Morgan, CS. “Cocoanut Grove: 30 Years After.” Boston: National Fire Protection Association, November 22, 1972. FULL TEXT

Moulton, RS. “The Cocoanut Grove Fire Tragedy.”  Boston: National Fire Protection Association, November 28, 1942. FULL TEXT

Priestly, BG. “Statement on Cocoanut Grove Tragedy.”   Boston: Chamber of Commerce,  December 2, 1942. FULL TEXT

 

Cocoanut Grove Remembered Top

Cocoanut Grove memorial plaque.

Cocoanut Grove Fire 71st Anniversaey Memorial and Dedication photos.

City may honor victims of Cocoanut Grove fire by renaming a street.” Boston Business Journal.  [Internet].  September 25, 2013. FULL TEXT

Durso, F, Jr. "Boston street renamed to commemorate the historic Cocoanut Grove Fire." NFPA Today (blog), December 02, 2013. FULL TEXT

Edelstein, JM. “LETTER: Recalling the Cocoanut Grove Fire.” Wicked Local: Cambridge.  [Internet].  December 3, 2013. FULL TEXT

Gelzinis, P. "Gelzinis: Burned into their memory." BostonHerald.com. [Internet] December 1, 2013.  FULL TEXT

Lowery, W. "Street renamed in memory of Cocoanut Grove fire." Boston Globe, November 30, 2013.  FULL TEXT

Neilson, Larz F. "70 years ago...Cocoanut Grove disaster killed 4 local brothers." Wilmington Town Crier. [Internet] FULL TEXT

Past + present.”  NFPA Journal, 2012 (Nov/Dec):  44-49. FULL TEXT

Sison, B. "Boston Street Renamed 71 Years After Deadly Cocoanut Grove Fire." Boston.CBS.com. [Internet] November 30, 2013.  FULL TEXT